Ruthenium

44
Ru
Golongan
8
Periode
5
Blok
d
Proton
Elektron
Neutron
44
44
57
Sifat Umum
Nomor atom
44
Massa atom
101,07
Nomor massa
101
Kategori
Logam transisi
Warna
Perak
Radioaktif
Tidak
From the Latin word Ruthenia, Russia
Struktur kristal
Segienam Sederhana
Sejarah
Jędrzej Śniadecki isolated the element in 1807, but his work was not ratified.

Jöns Berzelius and Gottfried Osann nearly discovered ruthenium in 1827.

In 1844, Karl Ernst Claus confirmed that there was a new element and isolated ruthenium from the platinum residues of the rouble production while he was working in Kazan University, Kazan.
Elektron per kulit
2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Konfigurasi elektron
[Kr] 4d7 5s1
Ru
Ruthenium is unaffected by air, water and acids
Sifat Fisika
Fase
Solid
Kepadatan
12,37 g/cm3
Titik lebur
2607,15 K | 2334 °C | 4233,2 °F
Titik didih
4423,15 K | 4150 °C | 7502 °F
Kalor peleburan
25,7 kJ/mol
Kalor penguapan
580 kJ/mol
Kapasitas kalor molar
0,238 J/g·K
Kelimpahan di kerak bumi
9,9×10-8%
Kelimpahan di alam semesta
4×10-7%
Gas
Kredit Gambar: Wikimedia Commons (Periodictableru)
Gas phase grown crystals of ruthenium metal
Nomor CAS
7440-18-8
PubChem CID Number
23950
Sifat Atom
Jari-jari atom
134 pm
Jari-jari kovalen
146 pm
Elektronegativitas
2,2 (Skala Pauling)
Potensi Ionisasi
7,3605 eV
Volume atom
8,3 cm3/mol
Kondusivitas termal
1,17 W/cm·K
Bilangan oksidasi
-2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Aplikasi
Ruthenium is used in platinum and palladium alloys to make wear-resistant electrical contacts.

Ruthenium dioxide and lead and bismuth ruthenates are used in thick-film chip resistors.

Fountain pen nibs are frequently tipped with alloys containing ruthenium.

Ruthenium is a versatile catalyst.
Ruthenium is a suspected carcinogen and its compounds strongly stain the skin
Isotop
Isotop stabil
96Ru, 98Ru, 99Ru, 100Ru, 101Ru, 102Ru, 104Ru
Isotop tidak stabil
87Ru, 88Ru, 89Ru, 90Ru, 91Ru, 92Ru, 93Ru, 94Ru, 95Ru, 97Ru, 103Ru, 105Ru, 106Ru, 107Ru, 108Ru, 109Ru, 110Ru, 111Ru, 112Ru, 113Ru, 114Ru, 115Ru, 116Ru, 117Ru, 118Ru, 119Ru, 120Ru