Silikon

14
Si
Golongan
14
Periode
3
Blok
p
Proton
Elektron
Neutron
14
14
14
Sifat Umum
Nomor atom
14
Massa atom
28,0855
Nomor massa
28
Kategori
Metaloid
Warna
Abu-abu
Radioaktif
Tidak
Dari kata Latin silex, artinya silika atau batu api
Struktur kristal
Pembalutan Tetrahedral
Sejarah
In 1800, Sir Humphry Davy thought silica to be a compound and not an element; but in 1811, Gay Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard probably prepared impure amorphous silicon by heating potassium with silicon tetrafluoride.

In 1824 Jöns Jakob Berzelius prepared amorphous silicon by the same general method.

Henri Deville in 1854 first prepared crystalline silicon, the second allotropic form of the element.
Elektron per kulit
2, 8, 4
Konfigurasi elektron
[Ne] 3s2 3p2
Si
Silicon also has the unusual property that it expands as it freezes
Sifat Fisika
Fase
Solid
Kepadatan
2,3296 g/cm3
Titik lebur
1687,15 K | 1414 °C | 2577,2 °F
Titik didih
3538,15 K | 3265 °C | 5909 °F
Kalor peleburan
50,2 kJ/mol
Kalor penguapan
359 kJ/mol
Kapasitas kalor molar
0,705 J/g·K
Kelimpahan di kerak bumi
27%
Kelimpahan di alam semesta
0,07%
Close
Kredit Gambar: Wikimedia Commons (Enricoros)
Close up photo of a piece of purified silicon
Nomor CAS
7440-21-3
PubChem CID Number
5461123
Sifat Atom
Jari-jari atom
111 pm
Jari-jari kovalen
111 pm
Elektronegativitas
1,9 (Skala Pauling)
Potensi Ionisasi
8,1517 eV
Volume atom
12,1 cm3/mol
Kondusivitas termal
1,48 W/cm·K
Bilangan oksidasi
-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Aplikasi
In the form of sand and clay it is used to make concrete and brick; it is a useful refractory material for high-temperature work, and in the form of silicates it is used in making enamels, pottery, etc.

Silica, as sand, is a principal ingredient of glass.

Silicon chips are the basis of modern electronic and computing.

Silicon carbide, more commonly called carborundum is used in abrasives.
If breathed in as a fine silica/silicate dust, it may cause chronic respiratory problems
Isotop
Isotop stabil
28Si, 29Si, 30Si
Isotop tidak stabil
22Si, 23Si, 24Si, 25Si, 26Si, 27Si, 31Si, 32Si, 33Si, 34Si, 35Si, 36Si, 37Si, 38Si, 39Si, 40Si, 41Si, 42Si, 43Si, 44Si