Fosfor

15
P
Golongan
15
Periode
3
Blok
p
Proton
Elektron
Neutron
15
15
16
Sifat Umum
Nomor atom
15
Massa atom
30,973762
Nomor massa
31
Kategori
Nonlogam lainnya
Warna
Tak berwarna
Radioaktif
Tidak
From the Greek phosphoros, light bearing; ancient name for the planet Venus when appearing before sunrise
Struktur kristal
Triklinik Sederhana
Sejarah
Hennig Brand discovered phosphorus in 1669, in Hamburg, Germany, preparing it from urine.

In 1769, Johan Gottlieb Gahn and Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that calcium phosphate is found in bones, and they obtained elemental phosphorus from bone ash.

Antoine Lavoisier recognized phosphorus as an element in 1777.
Elektron per kulit
2, 8, 5
Konfigurasi elektron
[Ne] 3s2 3p3
P
Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms - white phosphorus and red phosphorus
Sifat Fisika
Fase
Solid
Kepadatan
1,82 g/cm3
Titik lebur
317,25 K | 44,1 °C | 111,38 °F
Titik didih
553 K | 279,85 °C | 535,73 °F
Kalor peleburan
0,64 kJ/mol
Kalor penguapan
12,4 kJ/mol
Kapasitas kalor molar
0,769 J/g·K
Kelimpahan di kerak bumi
0,099%
Kelimpahan di alam semesta
0,0007%
Red
Kredit Gambar: Images-of-elements
Red phosphorus as powder
Nomor CAS
7723-14-0
PubChem CID Number
5462309
Sifat Atom
Jari-jari atom
98 pm
Jari-jari kovalen
107 pm
Elektronegativitas
2,19 (Skala Pauling)
Potensi Ionisasi
10,4867 eV
Volume atom
17,0 cm3/mol
Kondusivitas termal
0,00235 W/cm·K
Bilangan oksidasi
-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Aplikasi
Many fertilisers contain a high proportion of phosphorus and are manufactured from concentrated phosphoric acids.

Phosphorus is used in the manufacture of safety matches, pyrotechnics and incendiary shells.

Phosphorus is also used in steel manufacture and in the production of phosphor bronze.
White phosphorus is highly toxic while red phosphorus is considered non-toxic
Isotop
Isotop stabil
31P
Isotop tidak stabil
24P, 25P, 26P, 27P, 28P, 29P, 30P, 32P, 33P, 34P, 35P, 36P, 37P, 38P, 39P, 40P, 41P, 42P, 43P, 44P, 45P, 46P