Litium

3
Li
Golongan
1
Periode
2
Blok
s
Proton
Elektron
Neutron
3
3
4
Sifat Umum
Nomor atom
3
Massa atom
6,941
Nomor massa
7
Kategori
Logam alkali
Warna
Perak
Radioaktif
Tidak
Dari kata Yunani lithos, batu
Struktur kristal
Kubik Berpusat-badan
Sejarah
Lithium was discovered by Johann Arfvedson in 1817 when he was analyzing minerals from the island of Uto in Sweden.

The pure metal was isolated the following year by both Swedish chemist William Thomas Brande and English chemist Sir Humphry Davy working independently.

In 1855, larger quantities of lithium were produced through the electrolysis of lithium chloride by Robert Bunsen and Augustus Matthiessen.
Elektron per kulit
2, 1
Konfigurasi elektron
[He] 2s1
Li
Lithium is the only metal which reacts with nitrogen under normal conditions
Sifat Fisika
Fase
Solid
Kepadatan
0,534 g/cm3
Titik lebur
453,69 K | 180,54 °C | 356,97 °F
Titik didih
1615,15 K | 1342 °C | 2447,6 °F
Kalor peleburan
3 kJ/mol
Kalor penguapan
147 kJ/mol
Kapasitas kalor molar
3,582 J/g·K
Kelimpahan di kerak bumi
0,0017%
Kelimpahan di alam semesta
6×10-7%
0.5
Kredit Gambar: Images-of-elements
0.5 grams lithium under argon
Nomor CAS
7439-93-2
PubChem CID Number
3028194
Sifat Atom
Jari-jari atom
152 pm
Jari-jari kovalen
128 pm
Elektronegativitas
0,98 (Skala Pauling)
Potensi Ionisasi
5,3917 eV
Volume atom
13,10 cm3/mol
Kondusivitas termal
0,847 W/cm·K
Bilangan oksidasi
1
Aplikasi
Pure lithium metal is used in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

Lithium stearate is used as an all-purpose and high-temperature lubricant.

Lithium is used in special glasses and ceramics.

Metallic lithium and its complex hydrides are used as high energy additives to rocket propellants.
Lithium is corrosive and requires special handling to avoid skin contact
Isotop
Isotop stabil
6Li, 7Li
Isotop tidak stabil
4Li, 5Li, 8Li, 9Li, 10Li, 11Li, 12Li