Germanium

32
Ge
Golongan
14
Periode
4
Blok
p
Proton
Elektron
Neutron
32
32
41
Sifat Umum
Nomor atom
32
Massa atom
72,63
Nomor massa
73
Kategori
Metaloid
Warna
Abu-abu
Radioaktif
Tidak
From the Latin word Germania, Germany
Struktur kristal
Kubik Berpusat-muka
Sejarah
In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties based on its position on his periodic table and called the element eka-silicon.

In 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite.

The first silicon-germanium alloys were obtained in 1955.
Elektron per kulit
2, 8, 18, 4
Konfigurasi elektron
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Ge
Germanium and the oxide are transparent to infrared radiation
Sifat Fisika
Fase
Solid
Kepadatan
5,323 g/cm3
Titik lebur
1211,4 K | 938,25 °C | 1720,85 °F
Titik didih
3106,15 K | 2833 °C | 5131,4 °F
Kalor peleburan
31,8 kJ/mol
Kalor penguapan
334 kJ/mol
Kapasitas kalor molar
0,32 J/g·K
Kelimpahan di kerak bumi
0,00014%
Kelimpahan di alam semesta
0,00002%
Ultrapure
Kredit Gambar: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure chunk of polycrystalline germanium
Nomor CAS
7440-56-4
PubChem CID Number
6326954
Sifat Atom
Jari-jari atom
122 pm
Jari-jari kovalen
122 pm
Elektronegativitas
2,01 (Skala Pauling)
Potensi Ionisasi
7,8994 eV
Volume atom
13,6 cm3/mol
Kondusivitas termal
0,599 W/cm·K
Bilangan oksidasi
-4, 1, 2, 3, 4
Aplikasi
The most common use of germanium is as a semiconductor in electronics.

Germanium is used in transistors and in integrated circuits.

It is used as an alloying agent and as a catalyst.

It is also used in infrared spectroscopes and infrared detectors.
Germanium is not known to be toxic
Isotop
Isotop stabil
70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge
Isotop tidak stabil
58Ge, 59Ge, 60Ge, 61Ge, 62Ge, 63Ge, 64Ge, 65Ge, 66Ge, 67Ge, 68Ge, 69Ge, 71Ge, 75Ge, 76Ge, 77Ge, 78Ge, 79Ge, 80Ge, 81Ge, 82Ge, 83Ge, 84Ge, 85Ge, 86Ge, 87Ge, 88Ge, 89Ge