Galium

31
Ga
Golongan
13
Periode
4
Blok
p
Proton
Elektron
Neutron
31
31
39
Sifat Umum
Nomor atom
31
Massa atom
69,723
Nomor massa
70
Kategori
Logam pasca-​transisi
Warna
Perak
Radioaktif
Tidak
From the Latin word Gallia, France; also from Latin, gallus, a translation of Lecoq, a cock
Struktur kristal
Ortorombik Berpusat-dasar
Sejarah
In 1871, existence of gallium was first predicted by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev and called the element eka-aluminum.

Gallium was discovered spectroscopically by French chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875 by its characteristic spectrum in an examination of a sphalerite sample.

Later that year, Lecoq obtained the free metal by electrolysis of its hydroxide in potassium hydroxide solution.
Elektron per kulit
2, 8, 18, 3
Konfigurasi elektron
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Ga
Gallium has a strong tendency to supercool below its melting point / freezing point
Sifat Fisika
Fase
Solid
Kepadatan
5,907 g/cm3
Titik lebur
302,91 K | 29,76 °C | 85,57 °F
Titik didih
2477,15 K | 2204 °C | 3999,2 °F
Kalor peleburan
5,59 kJ/mol
Kalor penguapan
256 kJ/mol
Kapasitas kalor molar
0,371 J/g·K
Kelimpahan di kerak bumi
0,0019%
Kelimpahan di alam semesta
1×10-6%
Crystals
Kredit Gambar: Wikimedia Commons (Foobar)
Crystals of gallium
Nomor CAS
7440-55-3
PubChem CID Number
5360835
Sifat Atom
Jari-jari atom
135 pm
Jari-jari kovalen
122 pm
Elektronegativitas
1,81 (Skala Pauling)
Potensi Ionisasi
5,9993 eV
Volume atom
11,8 cm3/mol
Kondusivitas termal
0,406 W/cm·K
Bilangan oksidasi
1, 2, 3
Aplikasi
Gallium wets glass or porcelain and forms a brilliant mirror when it is painted on glass.

It is widely used in doping semiconductors and producing solid-state devices such as transistors.

Low melting gallium alloys are used in some medical thermometers as non-toxic substitutes for mercury.

Gallium arsenide is capable of converting electricity directly into coherent light.
Gallium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotop
Isotop stabil
69Ga, 71Ga
Isotop tidak stabil
56Ga, 57Ga, 58Ga, 59Ga, 60Ga, 61Ga, 62Ga, 63Ga, 64Ga, 65Ga, 66Ga, 67Ga, 68Ga, 70Ga, 72Ga, 73Ga, 74Ga, 75Ga, 76Ga, 77Ga, 78Ga, 79Ga, 80Ga, 81Ga, 82Ga, 83Ga, 84Ga, 85Ga, 86Ga