Yodium

53
I
Golongan
17
Periode
5
Blok
p
Proton
Elektron
Neutron
53
53
74
Sifat Umum
Nomor atom
53
Massa atom
126,90447
Nomor massa
127
Kategori
Halogen
Warna
Biru Keabu-abuan
Radioaktif
Tidak
From the Greek word iodes, violet
Struktur kristal
Ortorombik Berpusat-dasar
Sejarah
Iodine was discovered by French chemist Bernard Courtois in 1811.

He treated the liquor obtained from the extraction of kelp, with sulfuric acid to produce a vapour with a violet color.

In 1812, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac demonstrated that iodine was an element and its chemical relationship to chlorine.
Elektron per kulit
2, 8, 18, 18, 7
Konfigurasi elektron
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5
I
Kelp was the main source of natural iodine in the 18th and 19th centuries
Sifat Fisika
Fase
Solid
Kepadatan
4,93 g/cm3
Titik lebur
386,85 K | 113,7 °C | 236,66 °F
Titik didih
457,4 K | 184,25 °C | 363,65 °F
Kalor peleburan
7,76 kJ/mol
Kalor penguapan
20,9 kJ/mol
Kapasitas kalor molar
0,214 J/g·K
Kelimpahan di kerak bumi
0,000049%
Kelimpahan di alam semesta
1×10-7%
Pure
Kredit Gambar: Images-of-elements
Pure crystalline iodine
Nomor CAS
7553-56-2
PubChem CID Number
807
Sifat Atom
Jari-jari atom
140 pm
Jari-jari kovalen
139 pm
Elektronegativitas
2,66 (Skala Pauling)
Potensi Ionisasi
10,4513 eV
Volume atom
25,74 cm3/mol
Kondusivitas termal
0,00449 W/cm·K
Bilangan oksidasi
-1, 1, 3, 5, 7
Aplikasi
Iodine compounds are important in organic chemistry and very useful in medicine.

A solution containing potassium iodide and iodine in alcohol is used to disinfect external wounds.

Silver iodide is a major ingredient to traditional photographic film.

Iodine is added to table salt to prevent thyroid disease.
Elemental iodine is toxic if taken orally
Isotop
Isotop stabil
127I
Isotop tidak stabil
108I, 109I, 110I, 111I, 112I, 113I, 114I, 115I, 116I, 117I, 118I, 119I, 120I, 121I, 122I, 123I, 124I, 125I, 126I, 128I, 129I, 130I, 131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, 135I, 136I, 137I, 138I, 139I, 140I, 141I, 142I, 143I, 144I