Karbon

6
C
Golongan
14
Periode
2
Blok
p
Proton
Elektron
Neutron
6
6
6
Sifat Umum
Nomor atom
6
Massa atom
12,0107
Nomor massa
12
Kategori
Nonlogam lainnya
Warna
Hitam
Radioaktif
Tidak
Dari kata Latin carbo, arang
Struktur kristal
Segienam Sederhana
Sejarah
Carbon was discovered in prehistory and was known in the forms of soot and charcoal to the earliest human civilizations.

In 1772, Antoine Lavoisier showed that diamonds are a form of carbon; when he burned samples of charcoal and diamond and found that neither produced any water.

In 1779, Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that graphite burned to form carbon dioxide and so must be another form of carbon.
Elektron per kulit
2, 4
Konfigurasi elektron
[He] 2s2 2p2
C
About 20% of the weight of living organisms is carbon
Sifat Fisika
Fase
Solid
Kepadatan
2,267 g/cm3
Titik lebur
3948,15 K | 3675 °C | 6647 °F
Titik didih
4300,15 K | 4027 °C | 7280,6 °F
Kalor peleburan
105 kJ/mol
Kalor penguapan
715 kJ/mol
Kapasitas kalor molar
0,709 J/g·K
Kelimpahan di kerak bumi
0,18%
Kelimpahan di alam semesta
0,5%
Ultrapure
Kredit Gambar: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure carbon as graphite
Nomor CAS
7440-44-0
PubChem CID Number
5462310
Sifat Atom
Jari-jari atom
67 pm
Jari-jari kovalen
77 pm
Elektronegativitas
2,55 (Skala Pauling)
Potensi Ionisasi
11,2603 eV
Volume atom
5,31 cm3/mol
Kondusivitas termal
1,29 W/cm·K
Bilangan oksidasi
-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Aplikasi
The major use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil.

Graphite is used for pencil tips, high temperature crucibles, dry cells, electrodes and as a lubricant.

Diamonds are used in jewelry and in industry for cutting, drilling, grinding, and polishing.

Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink.
Pure carbon has extremely low toxicity to humans and can be handled safely in the form of graphite or charcoal
Isotop
Isotop stabil
12C, 13C
Isotop tidak stabil
8C, 9C, 10C, 11C, 14C, 15C, 16C, 17C, 18C, 19C, 20C, 21C, 22C