Tulium

69
Tm
Golongan
n/a
Periode
6
Blok
f
Proton
Elektron
Neutron
69
69
100
Sifat Umum
Nomor atom
69
Massa atom
168,93421
Nomor massa
169
Kategori
Lantanida
Warna
Perak
Radioaktif
Tidak
Named after Thule, the earliest name for Scandinavia
Struktur kristal
Segienam Sederhana
Sejarah
Thulium was discovered by Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve in 1879 by looking for impurities in the oxides of other rare earth elements.

The first researcher to obtain nearly pure thulium was Charles James, a British expatriate working on a large scale at New Hampshire College in Durham.

High-purity thulium oxide was first offered commercially in the late 1950s.
Elektron per kulit
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
Konfigurasi elektron
[Xe] 4f13 6s2
Tm
Thulium ore occurs most commonly in China
Sifat Fisika
Fase
Solid
Kepadatan
9,321 g/cm3
Titik lebur
1818,15 K | 1545 °C | 2813 °F
Titik didih
2223,15 K | 1950 °C | 3542 °F
Kalor peleburan
16,8 kJ/mol
Kalor penguapan
250 kJ/mol
Kapasitas kalor molar
0,16 J/g·K
Kelimpahan di kerak bumi
0,000045%
Kelimpahan di alam semesta
1×10-8%
Ultrapure
Kredit Gambar: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure crystalline thulium
Nomor CAS
7440-30-4
PubChem CID Number
23961
Sifat Atom
Jari-jari atom
176 pm
Jari-jari kovalen
190 pm
Elektronegativitas
1,25 (Skala Pauling)
Potensi Ionisasi
6,1843 eV
Volume atom
18,1 cm3/mol
Kondusivitas termal
0,168 W/cm·K
Bilangan oksidasi
2, 3
Aplikasi
Thulium is used to dope yttrium aluminum garnets used in lasers.

It has also been used in high-temperature superconductors similarly to yttrium.

Thulium has use in ferrites, ceramic magnetic materials that are used in microwave equipment.

Thulium is used in euro banknotes for its blue fluorescence under UV light to defeat counterfeiters.
Thulium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotop
Isotop stabil
169Tm
Isotop tidak stabil
145Tm, 146Tm, 147Tm, 148Tm, 149Tm, 150Tm, 151Tm, 152Tm, 153Tm, 154Tm, 155Tm, 156Tm, 157Tm, 158Tm, 159Tm, 160Tm, 161Tm, 162Tm, 163Tm, 164Tm, 165Tm, 166Tm, 167Tm, 168Tm, 170Tm, 171Tm, 172Tm, 173Tm, 174Tm, 175Tm, 176Tm, 177Tm, 178Tm, 179Tm