Hafnium

72
Hf
Golongan
4
Periode
6
Blok
d
Proton
Elektron
Neutron
72
72
106
Sifat Umum
Nomor atom
72
Massa atom
178,49
Nomor massa
178
Kategori
Logam transisi
Warna
Abu-abu
Radioaktif
Tidak
From Hafinia, the Latin name for Copenhagen
Struktur kristal
Segienam Sederhana
Sejarah
In 1911, Georges Urbain claimed to have found the element in rare-earth residues which was shown later to be a mixture of already discovered lanthanides.

Dirk Coster and George de Hevesy found it by X-ray spectroscopic analysis in Norwegian zircon in 1922.

Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer were the first to prepare metallic hafnium by passing hafnium tetra-iodide vapor over a heated tungsten filament in 1924.
Elektron per kulit
2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
Konfigurasi elektron
[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
Hf
In powdered form, hafnium is pyrophoric and can ignite spontaneously in air
Sifat Fisika
Fase
Solid
Kepadatan
13,31 g/cm3
Titik lebur
2506,15 K | 2233 °C | 4051,4 °F
Titik didih
4876,15 K | 4603 °C | 8317,4 °F
Kalor peleburan
25,5 kJ/mol
Kalor penguapan
630 kJ/mol
Kapasitas kalor molar
0,144 J/g·K
Kelimpahan di kerak bumi
0,00033%
Kelimpahan di alam semesta
7×10-8%
Electrolytic
Kredit Gambar: Images-of-elements
Electrolytic hafnium
Nomor CAS
7440-58-6
PubChem CID Number
23986
Sifat Atom
Jari-jari atom
159 pm
Jari-jari kovalen
175 pm
Elektronegativitas
1,3 (Skala Pauling)
Potensi Ionisasi
6,8251 eV
Volume atom
13,6 cm3/mol
Kondusivitas termal
0,23 W/cm·K
Bilangan oksidasi
2, 3, 4
Aplikasi
Hafnium oxide-based compounds are being introduced into silicon-based chips to produce smaller, more energy efficient and performance packed processors.

Most of the hafnium produced is used in the production of control rods for nuclear reactors.

Hafnium is also used in photographic flash bulbs, light bulb filaments, and in electronic equipment as cathodes and capacitors.
Hafnium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotop
Isotop stabil
176Hf, 177Hf, 178Hf, 179Hf, 180Hf
Isotop tidak stabil
153Hf, 154Hf, 155Hf, 156Hf, 157Hf, 158Hf, 159Hf, 160Hf, 161Hf, 162Hf, 163Hf, 164Hf, 165Hf, 166Hf, 167Hf, 168Hf, 169Hf, 170Hf, 171Hf, 172Hf, 173Hf, 174Hf, 175Hf, 181Hf, 182Hf, 183Hf, 184Hf, 185Hf, 186Hf, 187Hf, 188Hf