Torium

90
Th
Golongan
n/a
Periode
7
Blok
f
Proton
Elektron
Neutron
90
90
142
Sifat Umum
Nomor atom
90
Massa atom
232,03806
Nomor massa
232
Kategori
Aktinida
Warna
Perak
Radioaktif
Ya
Named after Thor, Scandinavian god of war
Struktur kristal
Kubik Berpusat-muka
Sejarah
Thorium was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1828, in Stockholm, Sweden.

Thorium was first observed to be radioactive in 1898, independently, by Polish-French physicist Marie Curie and German chemist Gerhard Carl Schmidt.

The crystal bar process was discovered by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925 to produce high-purity metallic thorium.
Elektron per kulit
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Konfigurasi elektron
[Rn] 6d2 7s2
Th
Thorium fuel research is continuing in several countries including the USA and India
Sifat Fisika
Fase
Solid
Kepadatan
11,7 g/cm3
Titik lebur
2115,15 K | 1842 °C | 3347,6 °F
Titik didih
5061,15 K | 4788 °C | 8650,4 °F
Kalor peleburan
16 kJ/mol
Kalor penguapan
530 kJ/mol
Kapasitas kalor molar
0,113 J/g·K
Kelimpahan di kerak bumi
0,0006%
Kelimpahan di alam semesta
4×10-8%
The
Kredit Gambar: Wikimedia Commons (NASA/ESA/JHU/R.Sankrit & W.Blair)
The Earth's thorium originated in the death throes of ancient stars
Nomor CAS
7440-29-1
PubChem CID Number
23960
Sifat Atom
Jari-jari atom
179 pm
Jari-jari kovalen
206 pm
Elektronegativitas
1,3 (Skala Pauling)
Potensi Ionisasi
6,3067 eV
Volume atom
19,9 cm3/mol
Kondusivitas termal
0,54 W/cm·K
Bilangan oksidasi
2, 3, 4
Aplikasi
Thorium is used to coat tungsten filaments in light bulbs.

It is also used in its oxide form in gas tungsten arc welding to increase the high-temperature strength of tungsten electrodes and improve arc stability.

Thorium-magnesium alloys are used in the aerospace industry for aircraft engines.
Thorium is highly radioactive
Isotop
Isotop stabil
232Th
Isotop tidak stabil
209Th, 210Th, 211Th, 212Th, 213Th, 214Th, 215Th, 216Th, 217Th, 218Th, 219Th, 220Th, 221Th, 222Th, 223Th, 224Th, 225Th, 226Th, 227Th, 228Th, 229Th, 230Th, 231Th, 233Th, 234Th, 235Th, 236Th, 237Th, 238Th